common scientific T SSN H W sun soil H2O fire N2 pH summer fall flower (seed)
Alexanders, golden Zizia aurea P CW 0.8 0.3 S/PS F-M-C DM-M - - - green grey yellow
Alexanders, heartleaf Zizia aptera (Gray) Fern. P CW 0.8 0.3 S/PS F-M-C DM-M - - - green grey yellow
alumroot Heuchera richardsonii P C 1.0 0.4 S/PS F-M-C DM - - - green orange cream-green
anemone, Canada Anemone canadensis P CW 0.4 0.7 S/PS F-M-C M •• - 6.8-7.2 green-dark maroon white
asphodel, sticky Triantha glutinosa ... P CW-W 0.6 0.2 - F-M MW-W - - - green grey cream-red
aster, flattop Doellingeria umbellata P W 0.5 0.2 - F-M-C DM-M - - - green brown white
aster, hairy false golden- Heterotheca villosa P CW 0.9 0.5 S M-C D-DM ••• - 6.0-7.5 green-gray gray yellow
aster, many-flowered Aster ericoides P W 0.5 0.7 S F-M-C DM-M •• - 5.6-7.8 green brown white
aster, New England Aster novae-anglia P W 1.2 0.2 S/PS F-M-C DM-M - - 5.0-6.0 green brown purple
aster, smooth Symphyotrichum laeve var. laeve P W 1.2 0.2 S/PS M-C DM-M ••• - 5.8-7.8 green-blue brown violet-blue
aster, white panicle Symphyotrichum lanceolatum ... P W 2.0 0.2 S/PS F-M-C M-W ••• - 5.8-7.4 green/red purple white/yellow
avens, three-flowered Geum triflorum P C 0.2 0.2 S/PS M DM •• - 6.0-7.5 green-dark maroon rd-pink (grey)
avens, yellow Geum aleppicum P CW 0.8 0.3 S/PS F-M-C M - - 6.1-7.8 green - yellow
bedstraw, northern Galium boreale L. P CW 1.0 0.3 S/PS M-C M - 5.0-7.2 green grey-yellow white
beggartick, nodding Bidens cernua A WY 1.0 0.5 S/PS F-M-C MW - 5.1-7.0 green-dark - yellow
bergamot, wild Monarda fistulosa P W 1.3 0.2 S/PS F-M M X - 6.0-8.0 green-grey grey lavender-pink
black-eyed susan Rudbeckia hirta P W-Y 0.6 0.3 S F-M-C M •• - 6.0-7.0 green grey yellow brown
blazingstar, dotted Liatris punctata Hook. P W 0.6 0.6 S F-M-C D ••• - 6.0-7.8 green - purple
blazingstar, meadow Liatris ligulistylis P W 1.0 0.2 S F-M-C DM-M ••• - 6.0-7.8 green grey-dark pink-red
blue-eyed grass Sisyrinchium montanum P CW 0.6 0.2 S F-M-C DM - - 5.0-6.5 green-grey yellow-pale blue-purple
bunchberry Cornus canadensis P CW-W 0.2 S PS M M ••• - 5.5-6.9 green-dark - white (red)
cactus, prickly pear Opuntia fragilis P CW 0.2 0.5 S gritty D - - - green grey yellow
camas, smooth Zygadenus elegans P CW 0.8 0.3 S/PS F-M-C M-W - - - green-pale grey white-green
cinquefoil, Norwegian Potentilla norvegica L. AP CW-W 0.7 1.0 S/PS F-M-C D - - - green grey-yellow yellow
clover, purple prairie Dalea purpurea Vent. P W 1.0 0.2 S F-M-C DM •• 6.0-8.0 green (mrn) grey pnk-prpl grey
clover, white prairie Dalea candida Michx. P W 0.7 0.2 S F-M-C DM •• 6.0-8.0 green grey white grey
narrowleaf collomia Collomia linearis Nutt. A CW 0.4 0.2 S F-M-C D - - - green-grey grey lavender-pink
coneflower, purple Echinacea angustifolia P W 1.2 0.2 S F-M-C DM •• 6.5-7.2 green-deep - mauve rust
coneflower, tall Rudbeckia laciniata P Y 2.0 0.3 SH F-M-C DM X - 4.5-7.0 green-grey - yellow grey
coneflower, yellow Ratibida columnifera P W 0.6 0.3 S F-M-C DM ••• - 5.9-7.0 green - yellow brown
Culver's root Veronicastrum virginicum P W 1.3 0.4 S/PS F-M-C M-MW - - 6.6-7.8 green grey-dark white blue
dogbane, spreading Apocynum androsaemifolium … P CW-W 1.0 1.0 S/PS gritty D ••• - - green (red) - white-pink
fern, bracken Pteridium aquilinum P CW 2.0 1.0 S/PS M-C D-M ••• - 4.5-7.0 green brown green
fern, ostrich Matteuccia struthiopteris P CW 1.7 0.7 S/PS F-M M - - 5.0-6.5 green-yellow brown none
fern, rattlesnake Botrychium virginianum P CW 0.4 0.4 PS M D-M ••• - 5.6-6.9 green brown none
fleabane, Philadelphia Erigeron philadelphicus L. BP CW 0.8 0.2 S/PS F-M-C DM •• - 4.8-7.8 green-pale grey-yellow wht-pnk yllw
fleabane, smooth Erigeron glabellus BP W 0.5 0.2 S/PS F-M-C DM - - 6.1-7.8 green-pale grey-yellow white-pink yllw
fleabane, tufted Erigeron caespitosus Nutt P W 0.3 0.2 S/PS F-M-C DM - - - green-grey grey-yellow white yllw
gaillardia Gaillardia aristata P CW 1.2 0.3 S M-C DM - 5.5-7.9 green-grey - yellow red
gentian, closed Gentiana andrewsii P W 0.6 0.2 S/PS F-C M-W •• - 5.8-7.2 green maroon gray purple
gentian, fringed Gentiana procera B W 0.3 0.3 S F-M-C M - - 6.6-7.8 green - blue-violet
goldenrod, Canada Solidago canadensis P WY 1.0 0.3 S/PS F-M-C DM-M ••• - 4.8-7.5 green grey yellow
goldenrod, early Solidago juncea Ait. P CW 1.2 1.0 S M-C D-M - - 5.5-7.5 green grey yellow
goldenrod, giant Solidago gigantea Ait. P W 2.5 1.0 S/PS F-M DM-W X - 5.5-7.5 green grey yellow-deep
goldenrod, gray Solidago nemoralis Aiton P W-Y 0.7 0.3 S F-M-C D-M ••• - 6.5-7.5 green-grey grey yellow
goldenrod, Missouri Solidago Missouriensis P CW-W 1.0 0.3 S/PS M-C D ••• - 5.5-7.5 green (red) (red) yellow
goldenrod, Riddell's Solidago Riddellii P Y 1.0 0.2 S F-M W - - - green-pale grey yellow
goldenrod, stiff Oligoneuron rigidum P Y 1.0 0.3 S/PS M-C DM ••• - 5.0-7.5 green (red) grey yellow-deep
goldenrod, velvety Solidago mollis P W 0.7 0.3 S F-M-C D - - - green-grey grey yellow
grass of parnassus Parnassia glauca Raf. P W 0.7 0.2 S F-M M •• - 6.0-8.0 green grey-yellow white
groundsel, entire-leaved Senecio integerrimus Nutt. BP CW 0.3 0.1 S/PS F-M-C DM ••• - 6.5-8.5 green-dark gray yellow (brown)
gumweed Grindelia squarrosa P W 0.8 0.6 S F-M-C DM - - - green brown yellow
harebell Campanula rotundifolia P CW-Y 0.5 0.1 S/PS sandy DM ••• - 4.0-7.0 green grey-dark blue violet
hawkweed, Canada Hieracium canadense P CW-Y 0.8 0.2 S/PS gritty D-DM - - - green grey-dark yellow
helenium Helenium autumnale P W 1.6 B S F-M-C M X - 4.0-7.5 green grey-yellow yellow (brown)
hoary puccoon Lithospermum canescens P C 0.5 0.3 S sandy DM - - nt-ac green-pale grey-yellow yellow-deep
horsetail, scouringrush Equisetum hyemale L. P C 1.6 0.4 S F-M-C DM-MW ••• - 4.5-6.5 green brown yellow-deep
horsetail, water Equisetum fluviatile L. P CW 1.0 0.4 S/PS F-M-C MW-Z- - - - green orange cream-green
hyssop, giant Agastache foeniculum P W 1.2 0.4 S/PS F-M-C M - - - green grey lavender
Indian breadroot Pediomelum esculenta P CW 0.7 0.4 S F-M D-DM - - - green-grey grey blue violet
Indian hemp Apocynum cannabinum P W 0.4 0.4 S F-M-C DM-W X - 4.5-7.0 green (red) yellow (red) white-green
iris, blue flag Iris versicolor P CW 1.6 0.2 S F-M-C M-W - - 5.0-7.0 green bronze blue-purple
ironweed Vernonia fasciculata P W-Y 1.8 1.0 S F-M-C M-W - - 5.6-7.5 green-dark - magenta
lettuce, blue Lactuca pulchella BP CW-Y 0.9 0.2 S/PS F-M-C M - - - green-blue grey blue-pale
lily, prairie Lilium philadelphicum P CW 0.6 0.2 S F-M-C DM ••• - 6.1-7.8 green-pale grey scarlet
lily, yellow pond Nuphar lutea variegata P C-Y 0.6 2.0 S F-M-C Z - - 4.7-< green brown yellow-deep
lobelia, brook Lobelia kalmii P W 0.3 0.1 S/PS F-M-C MW-W - - - green gray blue / white
lobelia, pale spike Lobelia spicata P W 0.5 0.1 S/PS F-M-C DM-M - - - green gray purple-pale
locoweed, showy Oxytropis splendens P Y 0.3 0.2 S M-C M 6.1-7.4 green-grey - purple
loosestrife, fringed Lysimachia ciliata L. P CW-W 1.0 0.4 S/PS F-M M-W - - <6.8 green gray yellow
lousewort, swamp Pedicularis lanceolata Michx. P W-L 0.9 0.3 S/PS F-M-C W - - limy green brown cream
marsh hedgenettle Stachys palustris L. P CW 1.0 0.2 S/PS F-M-C M-W •• - 5.7-8.0 green-gry (red) grey-yellow purple-pale
marsh marigold Caltha palustris L. P C 0.6 0.4 S/PS F-M MW-W ••• - 4.9-6.8 green - yellow
meadow-rue, tall Thalictrum pubescens P CW-W 1.5 0.4 S/PS F-M-C M - - - green (plum) - cream
meadow-rue, veiny Thalictrum venulosum P CW 1.0 0.4 S/PS gritty M - - - green-blue - white-green
milkvetch, ascending purple Astragalus striatus P CW 0.2 0.2 S/PS F-M-C DM ••• - - green bronze pink-purple
milkvetch, Canada Astragalus canadensis P W 0.9 1.0 S M DM ••• - 6.0-8.0 green-grey grey-yellow cream
milkvetch, purple Astragalus agrestis P W 0.3 1.0 S M DM ••• 6.3-7.7 green-blue brown purple
milkweed, common Asclepias syriaca L. P CW-W 2.0 0.3 S F-M-C D-M ••• - 5.1-7.5 green-grey grey-yellow cream-pink
milkweed, dwarf Asclepias ovalifolia Decne. P CW-W 0.6 0.2 S gritty D - - - green-gray grey-yellow white-pink
milkweed, showy Asclepias speciosa P W 1.2 0.3 S F-M-C M ••• - 5.0-7.0 green grey-yellow pink-white
milkweed, swamp Asclepias incarnata P Y 1.5 0.3 S F-M M-MW - 5.0-8.0 green scarlet magenta
obedient plant Physostegia virginiana P W 1.2 0.2 S/PS M-C DM-M ••• - 5.8-7.8 green brown purple-pink
onion, autumn Allium stellatum P W-Y 0.9 0.2 S/PS F-M-C M - - - green-pale - pink-white
onion, nodding Allium cernuum P W 0.6 0.2 S F-M-C M - - <7.2 green-yellow grey-yellow white-pink
paintbrush, scarlet Castilleja coccinea A C-Y 0.6 0.2 S/PS F-M-C DM X - 4.9-6.8 green-pale - scarlet
pale comandra Comandra umbellata ... - - - - - - - - - - - - -
pearly everlasting Anaphalis margaritacea - - - - - - - - - - - - -
peppergrass Lepidium densiflorum Schrad. P CW 0.6 0.3 S F-M-C D-M - - - green-pale yellow-pale (green-pale)
plantain, southern water Alisma subcordatum P W 1.2 0.3 S F-M-C MW ••• - 5.0-7.0 green (red) maroon white
prairie crocus Anemone patens P C 0.3 0.2 S F-M-C D - - 6.0-8.5 green - white / purple
primrose, gumbo Oenothera caespitosa Nutt. P C 0.2 0.2 S M-C D •• - 6.5-8.0 green - white
primrose, yellow evening Oenothera biennis B W 1.0 0.2 S F-M-C DM - 5.0-7.0 green-grey grey yellow
purple boneset Eupatorium maculatum P W 1.8 0.6 S/PS F-M-C MW - - - green (red) - pink-purple
pussytoes, little leaved Antennaria parvifolia P CW 0.1 S S/PS gritty DM X - - silver silver white / cream
pygmyflower Androsace septentrionalis L. A CW 0.1 0.1 S/PS C M - - - green-dull maroon white
red columbine Aquilegia canadensis P CW 0.7 0.2 S/PS F-M-C DM •• - nt-ac green (red) brown red / yellow
red samphire Salicornia rubra A W 0.3 0.2 S M-C DM X - 6.5-9.4 green red green
sage, pasture Artemisia frigida P W 0.5 0.2 S F-M-C DM •• - 7.0-9.0 green-grey grey yellow
sage, prairie Artemisia ludoviciana P WY 0.6 0.3 S F-M-C DM ••• - 6.0-7.5 silver silver purple
seaside arrowgrass Triglochin maritima L. P W 0.8 0.3 S F-M W - - - green grey white-green
seneca root Polygala senega L. P CW 0.3 0.3 S/PS F-M-C DM-M - - - green (plum) beige white
silverweed Potentilla anserina P CW 0.3 0.3 S/PS F-M-C DM-M •• - 7.0-8.0 green/white scarlet yellow
smartweed Polygonum amphibium P W 0.6 0.4 S F-M-C M-Z •• - 4.0-7.0 green brown pink (brown)
strawberry, wild Fragaria virginiana P C 0.2 0.4 S/PS F-M-C DM - - - green/red scarlet white (red)
sunflower, narrowleaf Helianthus maximiliani P W 2.0 1.0 S F-M-C M ••• - 6.0-8.0 green (mrn) grey-yellow yellow
sunflower, Nuttall’s Helianthus Nuttallii P W-Y 2.0 0.2 S F-M M •• - 5.9-7.5 green grey yellow
sunflower, oxeye Heliopsis helianthoides P W 1.0 0.2 S/PS F-M-C DM •• - 5.6-6.8 green grey yellow-deep
thistle, Flodman's Cirsium Flodmanii B CW-Y 0.9 0.1 S F-M-C M •• - - silver silver magenta
touch me not Impatiens capensis Meerb. P - - - - - - - - -
vervain, blue Verbena hastata BP W 1.2 0.2 S/PS F-M-C M - - 5.6-7.5 green grey-yellow purple-blue
violet, early blue Viola adunca P C 0.1 0.2 S/PS - - - - - green yellow grey violet
violet, northern bog Viola nephrophylla P - 0.1 0.2 - - M-MW - - - green yellow grey purple
water calla Calla palustris P CW 0.2 0.2 - - W-Z - - - green - white (red)
water horehound Lycopus americanus P CW 0.6 S S/PS F-M M-W ••• - 5.2-7.8 green purple white
water parsnip Sium suave A/P W 2.0 0.3 S F-M W-Z - - - green grey-yellow white
wild licorice Glycyrrhiza lepidota P W 1.0 1.0 S/PS F-M-C M •• - 5.5-8.0 green-pale grey cream-green
wild mint Mentha arvensis P CW 0.8 0.2 S/PS F-M-C M-W X - 5.0-7.0 green/maroon maroon blue-pale
willowherb, fringed Epilobium ciliatum Raf. A W 0.7 0.2 S/PS F-M-C M-W - - - green orange pink
woodsorrel, yellow Oxalis stricta L. P C-Y 0.3 0.3 S/PS F-M-C D - - 6.8-7.2 green brown yellow
yarrow Achillea millefolium P W 0.6 0.2 S F-M-C DM ••• - 6.0-8.0 green-grey grey white
yellow star grass Hypoxis hirsuta P C 0.3 0.1 S/PS F-M M ••• - 5.2-7.3 green gray-yellow yellow
TABLE COLUMNS ARE SORTABLE
common > name = have on site
T = type: A = annual | B = biennial | P = perennial | SS = subshrub | D = deciduous | C = coniferous
██ = cold stratify | ██ = cold stratify & scarify | ██ = plant directly | ██ = scarify | ██ = not from seed
SSN = season: C = cool | W = warm | Y = late
H = height (in metres) | W = width (in metres) | B = bunch | S = sod | SB = sod/bunch
sun: S = full sun | S/PS = sun or partial shade | PS = partial shade | SH = full shade
soil: F = fine | M = medium | C = coarse
H2O = moisture requirement: D = dry | M = moist | W = wet | Z = aquatic
fire = fire tolerance: - = unknown | X = none | = some | •• = moderate | ••• = high tolerance
N2 = nitrogen fixing: = yes
summer = foliage colour | fall = foliage (stem) colour | flower (seed) = flower (seed / fruit) colour, if conspicuous
pH = acidity - alkalinity