Perennial with upright, smooth stems; sometimes rough below the flowers. Leaves are opposite or alternate, toothed, hairy, and flat. Multiple yellow flowers with a reddish centre. Can grow up to 3 m tall. Growth is from rhizomes and tuberous roots. Also known as chocolate sunflower, as it smells like dark chocolate.
125,000 seeds/pound; starts from seed, division, container.
Moist meadows, ditches.
Seeds were eaten or boiled and used for dye.
Medicinal use: colds, fever, digestive complaints.
Seed is eaten by birds.
Bees are attracted to the flower.